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MLA Citation of Electronic Resources

With the proliferation of electronic resources and the changing nature of the internet, it has become difficult to find standardized documentation styles.  Individual instructors may require that you follow a specific style that differs from those shown below.  This is an interpretation of the MLA (Modern Language Association) Style that will hopefully meet the needs of UWMC students in citing resources.

Citing Full-Text Periodical Articles from and Online Subscription Service

* Note - When documenting sources, the first line should be flush with the left margin. Subsequent lines should be indented 5 spaces or ½ inch. If necessary, use the following abbreviations:  N.p. (no publisher), n.d. (no date), and n.pag. (no page).

Formula for Magazines

Author's last name, first name [if known]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical [italicized] Date of publication: Page numbers. Name of Database [italicized]. Publication medium. Date of access <URL of home page of Subscription Service>. [URL used only if previous information in citation is insufficient to find source]

Formula for Journals

Author's last name, first name [if known]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical [italicized] Volume.Issue (Year): Page numbers. Name of Database [italicized]. Publication medium. Date of access <URL of home page of Subscription Service>. [URL used only if previous information in citation is insufficient to find source]

Note – Always list the volume and issue number when documenting journals no matter the type of pagination used.

Formula for Newspapers

Author's last name, first name [if known]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical [italicized] Date of publication, edition: Section and pages. Name of Database [italicized]. Publication medium. Date of access <URL of home page of Subscription Service>. [URL used only if previous information in citation is insufficient to find source]

Changes to MLA format for 2009

  • Titles and online databases are italicized rather than underlined.
  • Include a medium of publication (Print, Web, Film, DVD, etc.).
  • For Web publications include a URL only when you think a reader would need it in order to find the work cited or if your instructor requires it.
  • All journal citations use an issue number, regardless of how they are paginated.
  • Use abbreviations for Web publications when there is no publisher (N.p.), no date (n.d.), or no pagination (n.pag.) available.
  • For database sources, the subscription service, library providing the service, city, and state are no longer used in the citation.

Citation Examples

EBSCOHOST

McMillan, Margaret. "History Revisited." Australian Journal of Rural Health 12.6 (2004): 233-234. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 November 2009.

Siegel, Robert. "Commentary:  Physics Is Like Everyday Life." All Things Considered. Aaron Freeman. National Public Radio. 10 May 2005. Newspaper Source Plus. Transcript. Web. 14 February 2009.

PROQUEST

Jindal, Bobby. "How to Make Health-Care Reform Bipartisan." Wall Street Journal. 22 July 2009, eastern ed.: A15. ABI/‌INFORM. Web. 25 July 2009.

WILSONWEB

Prewitt, Milford. "Loyal Customers Fund Restaurant Rescues." Nation's Restaurant News 42.12 (2008): 1, 27-28. Wilson Business Full Text. Web. 10 November 2009.

LEXIS-NEXIS

"A Hard Road to Hoe; Teaching Poor Children." Economist  6 Oct. 2007. n. pag. LexisNexis Academic. Web. 10 January 2009.

CQ RESEARCHER

Katel, Peter. "Legalizing Marijuana." CQ Researcher 12 June 2009: 525-548. CQ Researcher Online. Web. 15 June 2009.

POINTS OF VIEW

Sexton, Jennifer. "Celebrity Activism: An Overview." Points of View: Celebrity Activism. 2008: 1. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 30 October 2009.

Formula for Non-Library Database Websites

Author's name [if known]. "Title of the Work." Title of the Complete Work [if applicable]. Document date [if known]. Name of organization sponsoring the site [if applicable]. Web (the publication medium). Date you accessed the document <Complete http address>. (URL used only if previous information in citation is insufficient to find source)

GENERAL WEB SITES

Essig, Maria G. "Poison Ivy, Oak, or Sumac." WebMD. Ed. Susan Van Houten and Pat Truman. 25 Sept. 2007. Web.
1 February 2009.

NEWSPAPER WEB SITES

Halter, Nick. "J.W. Perry Floral Company Tries to Move on after Fire." Wausau Daily Herald. 7 July 2009. n. pag. Web.
22 July 2009.

GOVERNMENT WEB SITES

Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Children and Families. "Stimulus payments subject to intercept." WDCF. N.p., 31 July 2009. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. <http://dcf.wisconsin.gov>.

GOOGLE BOOKS

Austen, Jane. Emma. Vol. 1. 1892. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1902. Google Books. Web. 29 July 2009

*Note – Follow standard indentation as described for databases above.

All of the above examples are for use in a Bibliography or Works Cited list.

For further information, please refer to the following books in the UWMC Library: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers CALL #  REF LB 2369 .G53 2009

APA Citation of Electronic Resources

With the proliferation of electronic resources and the changing nature of the internet, it has become difficult to find standardized documentation styles. This is an interpretation of the APA (American Psychological Association) Style. Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more guidelines, or for examples of other items not shown below.

Citing Full-Text Periodical Articles from an Online Subscription Service

Formula

Author's last name, first and middle initials. (Date of publication). Title of Article. Title of Periodical, Volume, Page numbers. Retrieved [date of access] from [database].

*Note: Give issue # only if a scholarly journal is separately paginated.

PROQUEST DIRECT

Fox, J. (1999, March 15). What in the world happened to economics?. Fortune,190, 22. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database.

EBSCOHOST

Reis, J, & Riley, W. L. (2000). Predictors of college students' alcohol consumption: Implications for student education. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161, 282-291. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from Academic Search Elite database.

Hawkins, D. (2000, January 17). Cheap video cameras are monitoring our every move. U.S. News & World Report,128, 52. Retrieved February 23, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier database.

WILSONWEB

Hofmann, M. A. (2000, January 3). Same-sex couples' right to benefits upheld. Business Insurance, 34, 3. Retrieved November 23, 2008, from Business Abstracts Full Text database.

McCallum, J. (2004, November 29). The ugliest game. Sports Illustrated, 101, 44-49, 51. Retrieved March 2, 2005, from Reader's Guide Full Text database.

LEXIS-NEXIS

Heart disease deaths among women may be linked to geography. (2000, February 16). Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), metro ed., p. 3A. Retrieved April 8, 2006, from LexisNexis Academic database. 

CQ RESEARCHER

Cooper, M. H. (2000, January 28). Employee benefits. CQ Researcher. Retrieved February 20, 2007, from The CQ Researcher database.

FACTS.com

Domestic violence. (2000, August 31). Retrieved September 20, 2008, from Issues and Controversies database.

OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS

James, J. S. (1998). Combination drug treatments may end the AIDS crisis. In T. L. Roleff & C. P. Cozic (Eds.), Opposing Viewpoints: AIDS. Opposing Viewpoints Series. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved November 13, 2008, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.

Linden, E. (1996, March 4). Chicken of the sea?. Time, 147, 57. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database. 

Non-Library Databases or Personal Websites

Formula

Author's last name, and first and middle initials. (Document date—use the abbreviation n.d. in parentheses if date is not known) Title of document. Retrieved [date of access], from [complete URL address]. 

Wisconsin hunters asked to help fight chronic wasting disease. (2002, August 14). Retrieved November 18, 2008, from http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/1029352007.html

Cantor, J. (1998) Media and parents: Protecting children from harm. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Cantor/Cantor.html

GOOGLE BOOKS

Ballard, Joe N. (1998). Horatio Wright. The History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved on December 23, 2007, from http://www.google.com/books.

All of the above examples are for use in a Bibliography or Works Cited list.

Citing Sources in the Text

If you are using in-text citations of electronic sources in APA style, use the author's last name or the first few words of the title if no author's name is given. If page numbers, screen numbers or paragraph numbers are included on the web site, include those in the reference as well.

  • Example: (Coates, 2000, para. 1)
  • Example: ("Wisconsin Hunters," 2002)

Other Citation Guideline References

Managing Your Citations

  • Knight Cite will format your citations in MLA, APA or Chicago styles. Provided by Calvin College.
  • Son of Citation Machine will format your citations in MLA, APA or Chicago styles. Provided by the Landmark Project.
  • Noodletools – a service that will help you create, save and format bibliographies or reference lists for papers or projects

Using the Internet / Plagiarism

  • Avoiding Plagiarism – designed to help writers develop strategies for knowing how to avoid accidental plagiarism